Category Archives: minimalist shoes

Shoes are Dangerous for Kids

The children’s shoe industry has been around for over a century and represents almost 20% of the 60 billion dollar U.S. market.  Yet, many experts agree children’s shoes do more damage to the growing foot than they do to protect them . Kid’s shoes are cute, clever and quite corrupting.  At best a child’s footwear will protect their feet from getting dirty and at worst it will permanently deform their foot, promote faulty posture, produce an unnatural gait and decrease brain development.  

Children’s Footwear Myths:

  1. Shoes need to be a snug fit: This doesn’t allow for the elastic movement of the foot and toes to work as they are meant to function.  Furthermore, the tightness can reshape the cartilage and change the actual shape of the foot!
  2. Heel support and lift is needed for protection: look at your child’s shoe.  Is the heel higher (and thicker) than the the toe?  If so, and it probably is, this will adaptively shorten their Achilles tendon and calf musculature…this can be permanent. 
  3. Pronation protection: Pronation is normal!  Overpronation is quite subjective and has been seen to dissipate while walking or running barefoot.  Let their little cute ankles get stronger by moving through a full natural range of motion. 
  4. Leaving room in the shoe for their little feet to grow (or being too cheap and buying a size up thinking they’ll grow into it):  When they are running around and suddenly stop their tootsies get slammed up against the front of the shoe causing ingrown toenails and worse the beginning of hammer toes and bunions.   

Ever try to put a shoe on a baby or the even the family pet? They can hardly remove the offending shoe or booty fast enough. It is actually quite funny endeavor to watch. This is a message about our instinct to be barefoot. In fact, studies show barefoot children learn to walk more quickly and have less falls than their shod counterparts. Until about age 10, most children still have soft, malleable feet.  Not to mention they are getting larger all the time and literally pushing up through the seams. Kids’ feet are not just smaller versions of ours; they tend to be wider across the toes and mostly cartilage (which is gradually replaced by bone). Children’s footwear is modeled to be smaller versions of adult ones. Some manufacturers make high heels for kids! 

Most shoe companies design shoes with pre-defined shapes and overlook the natural architecture of the human foot. This is especially true when it comes to shoes for kids. Rigid and malformed shoes directly effect how a child’s foot bones and arch will shape. Our toes are supposed to be spread out, almost in a “v” shape.  Instead most of us have crunched and smooshed in feet with little or no independent control of our toes. Our feet become the shape of the shoes we wear. 

The soles of our feet and toes contain over 200,000 nerve endings that serve to tell our brain about our environment in order to balance the body, know where and how hard to step down and provide it with accurate information regarding proprioception.  The foot brain connection is vital for equilibrium, gait, and dynamic/passive stability.  The sensory blindfold of a thick soled shoe confuses the entire connection. A congenially shod child will never properly develop this brain foot connection and will suffer from functionally weak and under-performing feet, unnatural gaits and faulty postural skills.   
For a variety of reasons, sneaker companies are always convincing us to buy snug fitting shoes for our toddlers (and us). A growing child’s foot will get all of its developmental requirements satisfied by simply playing, jumping and running without shoes. 

When my son isn’t running around barefoot, he rocks a pair VIVOBAREFOOT minimalist shoes.  When he does wear shoes, he hardly ever bothers with socks because he likes to feel the ground (socks provide one more layer of foot/toe tightness and distance from the earth).  He also wears “zero drop” sandals like Huraraches or scuba socks.  In looking for shoes it is important to find a pair that has no heel, thin soles, lightweight and a big toe box.  Let your child’s feet feel the ground and function like they have evolved to move and work.  There is nothing like being a kid and running barefoot through the grass…interesting research and reviews of shoe wearing children:

Udaya B. Rao, Benjamin Joseph, (1992) “The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flat foot: A survey of 2,300 children”, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 74‚ No. 4. pages 525-527.
  • Findings: An Elevated heel of any height on a child’s shoe shortens the Achilles tendon. This marks the beginning of permanent tendon shortening.  Flat foot was most common in children who wore closed-toe shoes, less common in those who wore sandals or slippers, and least in the unshod. The study suggest that shoe-wearing in early childhood is detrimental to the development of a normal longitudinal arch.  

Staheli LT, (1991) “Shoes for Children: A Review”, Pediatrics, 88(2):371-375. 

  • Optimum foot development occurs in the barefoot environment. 2. The primary role of shoes is to protect the foot from injury and infection. 3. Stiff and compressive footwear may cause deformity, weakness, and loss of mobility. 4. The term “corrective shoes” is a misnomer. 5. Shock absorption, load distribution, and elevation are valid indications for shoe modifications. 6. Shoe selection for children should be based on the barefoot model. 7. Physicians should avoid and discourage the commercialization and “media”-ization of footwear. Merchandising of the “corrective shoe” is harmful to the child, expensive for the family, and a discredit to the medical profession.  

The NY TIMES (Aug. 14, 1991): Children with the healthiest and most supple feet are those who habitually go barefoot. Studies of developing nations show that non-shoe-wearers have better flexibility and mobility, stronger feet, fewer deformities, and less complaints than those who wear shoes regularly. When a child must wear a shoe, it should be lightweight, flexible, shaped more or less quadrangularly, and above all, should not have the arch supports and stiff sides once deemed necessary to give the foot support. Many pediatric orthopedists strongly oppose “corrective” or “orthopedic” shoes for straightening foot and leg deformities like flat feet, pigeon toes, knock-knees, or bowlegs. Dr. Staheli and others contend that there is no evidence that corrective shoes correct anything, and that most of the supposed deformities correct themselves in almost all cases.

“The Pilbara Times”, Australia (31 Jan 1980). “Care For Kids Then Care For Their Feet”: Edited extracts from an interview with the president of the Australian Podiatry Association:

“[Children’s] bones are soft cartilage, easily compressible, and they don’t feel pain until the damage is done,” said the president of The Australian Podiatry Association.   “The effects of childhood foot damage can show up in posture and gait in the early twenties,” the president said. “The inability for a person to stand for any length of time without stress can also be attributed to early foot problems. Shoes must take a lot of the blame for claw toes, under and over riding toes, bunions and ingrown toe nails, not to mention corns and callus.  Australian children probably have broader feet now than they did ten years ago, because so many go barefoot. Between the ages of 7 and 12 years, growth is fairly rapid. Don’t hesitate to let them be barefoot. It won’t spread or flatten normal healthy feet as the foot only grows as long as the ligaments allow anyway. The majority of foot damage is preventable if parents take proper care of their children’s feet by allowing them to grow naturally – barefootedly.”

 For more barefoot information click Here

Doug Joachim – NYC In-Home Personal Trainer
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Got Foot Strength?

screaming feet

“I hardly use my toes, why should I strengthen them?” stated the dimwitted big-biceped gym rat.  It may seem insignificant but the inability to control the stability of the foot and toes has paramount implications on the entire body.  As you step down your foot is the first part of your anatomy that has to overcome all ground forces.  Depending on how your foot falls it will negatively or positively affect the integrity of your knee joints, lumbopelvic hip stability and the rest of the translated forces up the kinetic chain.  Most of us wear shoes all day long and barely spend anytime barefoot. I fear to say that many people spend no time barefoot except for when they are sleeping.  Just to be clear, when I say “barefoot” I mean just that: naked feet sans shoes, slippers, and socks.  Shoes are ruining our feet and additionally causing lots of unmitigated knee, hip and lower back pain.  Most footwear quietly over time wreaks havoc on our anatomy.  The foot coffins we don, although maybe sexy, have been shown to cause:

  1. Bunions, corns, and blisters
  2. Fallen arches
  3. Hammer toes
  4. Ingrown toenails
  5. Increased chances of ankle sprains
  6. Foot disfigurement
  7. Athlete’s Foot (bacterial and fungal infections)
  8. Hallux valgus (inward turning of big toe)
  9. Shortens and weakens the Achilles tendon and calf musculature
  10. Plantar fasciitis

Shoes provide us with a form of self-imposed neurological and muscular blindness.  They prevent us from feeling the ground and using the muscles in our feet correctly.  A shoe works in a similar way to a cast.  It protects us from the environment and holds the architecture of the foot rigid yet our feet crave freedom.  Shod individuals have blindfolded and bound their own feet in order to protect against the elements.  If the foot was a person, it would scream “torture” (AKA: enhanced stressed positions).  Research shows going barefoot improves alignment, strengthens the foot, increases flexibility and promotes better balance and proprioception.

Did you ever see Daniel Day-Lewis in “My Left Foot”?  His character lost the ability to use most of his body except, you guessed it, his left foot.  Anyway, with only one limb working, he became very adept at using his foot to paint, eat, write etc.  Many babies and toddlers have this same ability.  The main reason we lose our natural lower limb dexterity because we stop using our feet and toes and begin wearing shoes.  In congenitally barefoot societies the breadth of foot strength and dexterity is simply amazing by our standards.

Let’s see how much control you have over your toes and feet. Try these 4 things to improve your foot’s dexterity, strength, and balance.

1. Stand up and push your big toe down into the ground (but don’t bend/flex it) and lift your other toes up while keeping your heel on the ground (make sure not to roll the ankle in or out).

2. How about lifting your big toe up and pressing your other four toes down (but don’t bend them) while keeping your heels grounded?

3. Try standing on one foot, not shifting all your weight to that side, and balance on 3 points: big toe, heel, and Ball under the small toe.  Hold for 30 seconds.

4. Janda’s Short foot – a great micro-movement that strengthens your 1st MTP and arch:


The 1st MTP (big toe) supports the weight of your body while walking and running.  It also serves as the push off point during locomotion.  However, most running sneakers have a narrow toe box that is flexed upwards (industry standard is 15 degrees…high heels are much more), putting all your toes in extension and preventing the 1st MTP from properly flexing down and propelling you off into the next step.   During the landing phase of walking/running, the big toe helps raise the arch (medial longitudinal arch) and thus locks the bones of the foot causing temporary stiffness which allows for propulsion.  In shoes the 1st MTP is immobilized like a fish in a tin can preventing the arch mechanics from properly working.  Most congenitally shod individuals have weakened toes and potentially inhibited foot muscles from all that shoe wearing.  We develop compensations from these weak links and our knees, hips and back suffer for it.  As often as you can kick off your shoes and walk around (uneven surfaces are great) and practice the above exercises to regain some of your innate foot dexterity and balance.


1. Influence of Footwear on Flat foot
2. Rossi, William A. “Why Shoes Make” Normal” Gait Impossible.” Part 1 (1999): 50-61.
3. Janda Foot Exercise
4. Walking Barefoot Decreases Knee Pain
5. Lumbo-Pelvic Hip Stabilization and Foot Strength From Dr. Emily Splichal
6. Shoe Design Manipulates Human Movement

Doug Joachim – NYC
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Best Barefoot Shoes

Many of you may already know I have always been interested in gait and foot anatomy. After all, once your foot hits the ground, depending on position, foot fall, arch, surface, forces etc. it will effect your entire muscular-skeletal static and functional anatomy. Most shoes, depending on their shape, can negatively affect your posture and put undue stresses on your body, specifically tightening your calves and your entire posterior chain all the way up to your occiput. This is why high heels are a big culprit in headache production! There is abundant research stating that those of us who wear shoes or live in a shoe society have a lot more foot problems than those who reside in a barefoot community:

1- Shakoor N, Block JA (2006). “Walking barefoot decreases loading on the lower extremity joints in knee osteoarthritis”. Arthritis Rheum. 54 (9): 2923–7. (found that shoes may increase stresses on the knee and ankle, and suggested that adults with osteoarthritis may benefit from walking barefoot).

2- Rao UB, Joseph B (1992). “The influence of footwear on the prevalence of flat foot. A survey of 2300 children”. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume 74 (4): 525–7 (found that children who wore shoes were three times more likely to have flat feet than those who did not, and suggested that wearing shoes in early childhood can be detrimental to the longitudinal arch of the foot).

3- Staheli LT (1991). “Shoes for children: a review”. Pediatrics 88 (2): 371–5. (found that barefoot walking supported optimum foot development, and the best use of shoes are to protect the foot from injury rather than for correction of problems).

When one is barefoot it stimulates your foot’s proprioception, balance, dexterity, flexibility and strength. A shoe, especially a tight one with a big heal (this includes men as most sneakers or dress shoes have at least a one inch heel) occludes your feet from feeling the environment which effectively handicaps them. Moreover, your brain wants to feel the ground beneath you and cushioned shoes make that more difficult so that when you step down you must use more force which in turn puts increased stress on your joints. Because most babies/toddlers don’t wear shoes, they have 3 to 4 times the foot dexterity and relative strength compared with an adult. That flexibility, strength and dexterity diminish precipitously once they start wearing shoes. Due to the extreme flatness of most ground surfaces in our concrete world, our feet and gait are rarely challenged. This problem is compounded by wearing sensory-depriving, super-cushioned shoes (effectively dumbing down our sensory motor units). If you do not challenge the tissues of your lower leg (or any neuromuscular system of your body) on a regular basis it will not adapt and in fact will get weaker! That being said, if you have serious structural abnormalities such as leg length discrepancies or congenital skeletal conditions, orthopedic aids or other interventions may be necessary. I know it is not practical or advisable to walk around NYC barefoot, yuck, but there are some alternatives. As a side note, I have a non-existent congenital arch, a few hammer toes, moderate pronation and big feet to boot. You could say my feet are not perfect. But over the last few years I have not had any pain or issues with my feet. I think this is largely due to the fact I have spent more time barefoot and been wearing barefoot shoes. There are now lots of companies making minimal shoes these days; including Nike, Reebok, Merrill, New Balance and Vibram just to name a few. I have tried all of them (except the god awful looking “Vibram 5 Fingers”). Not one of them is perfect, some have too much cushioning, a tight toe box, elevated heels, a curved shape, too much support etc. However, there is a small company called VIVOBAREFOOT that I believe makes the best “barefoot” shoe on the market. They are not perfect yet but they meet all my needs and feel the best. Here is the link:

In case you were wondering I do not get any sort of kick back for recommending these shoes.

 Also Check out my article on the pro and cons of barefoot running: BarefootOrNot?

Doug Joachim – NYC
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